They just went through major !@#$ trying to fix these problems with Windows. I believe they are fixed right now. Your original problem with the 'Cannot find module ‘babel-helper-function-name’ error is documented in Meteor issue 7247. I think you’ll find that having the bad versions somewhat poisoned your system because the existing version is used to get the new one and the existing is broke.
I am not a Windows user anymore, so I can’t actually duplicate your issues and try to resolve them. I did note that this new version added an uninstall to the Windows Installer. Perhaps you can use that to clean out the existing installation and start anew. There may be other answers in the above thread, but it went through a lot of evolution.
If not, as someone who used Windows for development for over 30 years and just abandoned it a few months ago for Ubuntu (now using 16.04), I can testify that running Ubuntu on VirtualBox under Windows works well, especially if you have a 4 core machine and can tell VirtualBox to just give Ubuntu a couple of cores. I did that for a few months, then switched to dual booting, and for the past 3 months have not booted Windows. My life as a developer has been much easier since.