Whenever the VS Debugger is attached to the meteor node process the node process crashes.
The stack trace is available at: https://github.com/meteor/meteor/issues/5730, which is closed right now.
The guy has told me to open this topic here to see if anyone has experienced success debugging Meteor Applications on Windows by using the Node Tools for Visual Studio, NTVS (https://github.com/Microsoft/nodejstools).
I have to mention that it is possible to debug pure Node v5.0.0 with no problems.
Node used by this meteor instalation is of v0.10.40.