map) the elements in the array in PHP, and write the same function in C (and embed it in the PHP binary); the second one will run faster (again, unless you f* up the C code). Always.
As I said, it has a hundred rules, and a hundred functions; it should be 100 rules, 100k functions. (I hope we don’t have people smart enough to start discussing the 100k made-up number).
For example, Swift, C++, C, Pascal, Assembly, are compiled languages. There produce OS-native binaries that does not contain the source code. On the other hand, Python, Ruby, Java are all interpreted languages, because they produce a bytecode that is somewhere between machine code and the source code.
The second link you provided mentions also that the specification does not say interpreted or compiled. Well, of course. If it did, it would be an implementation, not a specification.
So, you can of course move this argument to differentiate between the specification (the grammar rules of the language) and the binaries that process code written in that language; but that would pretty much be a non-practical discussion, because specification is abstract, and is meaningless until you write software that turns that specification into practice. No language specification can specify (shouldn’t anyway) if a language is interpreted or compiled. Because interpretation and/or compilation are binary operations, and have nothing to do with the abstract syntax tree (basically, the specification) of that language.
When the output of a language processor is something that can be run without that processor and the source code, the output is said to be compiled, and the binary that produced that output is called a compiler. Producing an independent binary is the definition of compilation.
An compiler is a binary that goes over all the included code, and does certain checks before running the code. Let’s say you put
. where you should have put
In the end, yes, ES6 is needlessly obfuscating code, creating more grammar instead of creating more functions. More grammar makes a language richer, but most of the time, not as much as a word/function.