Opera + VPN + Letsencrypt: Websocket connection failed

I’m deploying a Meteor app to my own server following the PhusionPassenger tutorial. I have set up Letsencrypt to switch automatically to https:// protocol.

On Chrome and Firefox, everything works fine, but on Opera, I get an error:
WebSocket connection to 'wss://myserver.com/sockjs/596/co9akhrr/websocket' failed: Error in connection establishment: net::ERR_NOT_IMPLEMENTED

I have discovered that if I disable Letsencrypt, then the error on Opera disappears. The error also disappears if I switch off Opera’s VPN feature.

Is there either a way to detect whether a given user is connecting via Opera’s VPN feature, or a means to detect from within the Meteor app that the Websocket connection has failed, so that I can divert such users to a plain http:// version of the site?

Good News: Older questions and answers on similar topics indicate that the free version of Cloudflare did not support websockets at the time of writing, but an article dated 19 November 2019 states: “WebSockets are available for all Cloudflare customers”.