What are the key challenges in creating high quality software at scale?

In other words, what makes it hard to keep software bug/defect free when you are operating at scale? Is it even difficult? Or is there a simple solution?

I’d love to hear your insights to inform some problem analysis research I am working on, especially from anyone that has experience of working on large software projects. To qualify the question a little further:

By quality, I guess I really mean accuracy, or freedom from defects & bugs. So from the point of a feature requirement being identified, through the process of delivering that feature to a customer, what are some of the factors that allow bugs to creep in?

By “Scale” I mean more than a handful of developers, hundreds or more users, business-critical applications, multiple or distributed teams. Basically I’m trying to say not including instances where the team is hacking on small scale experiments, prototypes, hobbies or anything that does not really need to last.

Thanks so much in advance for your insights!